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Soft power superpower

(原标题)软实力超级大国

Global trends in cultural engagement and influence

(副标题)全球文化参与与文化影响力变化趋势

Author: Alistair MacDonald

作者:阿利斯泰尔·麦克唐纳

China
As part of its international strategy, China has been investing enormous sums on soft power, rapidly expanding its global reach and influence.

【中国篇】
作为其国际战略的一部分,中国一直都在大举投资软实力,快速扩张其全球覆盖面和影响力。

China sees soft power as crucial to its peaceful rise and to building its vision for a new world order, creating and building a ‘community of common destiny’. It has been estimated that China spends about $US10 billion 3 annually on soft power initiatives; by comparison the US State Department budget for public diplomacy stood at $666 million in 2014 and, as a result of the Trump administration’s 30 per cent reduction to the State Department budget, is set to fall below $550 million in 2018.

在中国眼中,软实力对于其和平崛起乃至构建符合其愿景的新世界秩序都是至关重要的,它还创造构建出了一个“人类命运共同体”。据估计,中国每年在软实力倡议上的花费约达100亿美元,相比之下,美国国务院分配给公共外交的预算在2014年达到6.66亿美元,而由于特朗普政府砍掉了30%的国务院预算,这样,2018年的预算就势必会降至5.55亿美元以下。

Since 2004 China’s Ministry of Education has established over 500 government funded Confucius Institutes in 140 countries, many of which are based in universities with staff employed by the host university. This includes an increase of almost 200 Institutes in the past five years alone. These largely offer language classes, although there is often a broader cultural offer and an increasing focus on specialist areas of study, for example traditional Chinese medicine and sports therapy. China has also set up more than 1,000 Confucius Classrooms and school-based language hubs in foreign schools, providing them with teachers, materials and funding to help younger children learn Mandarin and experience Chinese culture. Students around the world are flocking to learn Mandarin, recognising it as the language of the future, something that should give pause to complacent anglophone societies that think they need no longer bother learning foreign languages.



In 2010 the Chinese government put on more than 100 Chinese New Year events in cities around the world. In 2017 it sponsored some 2,000 of them in 140 countries to mark the Year of the Chicken, with London’s event the largest worldwide. 4 Chinese culture is permeating around the world, driven by huge (largely private sector) investments in films and creative industries.

2010年时,中国政府在全世界各大城市中举办了一百多场中国新年活动。在2017年,它在140个国家赞助了这类活动中的约2000场,以庆祝鸡年,在伦敦举办的活动是全世界规模最大的。中国文化正在渗透全世界,而这是由对电影和创意产业的海量投资(私营企业占到其中的大部分)驱动的。

This outreach programme is having a real impact in perceptions of China around the world. The Pew Research Center has, for example, found that more than 50 per cent of those aged 18–29 in Nigeria and Ghana enjoy Chinese music, television and films. American and European cultural dominance may be giving way to a more pluralist world with people around the world enjoying a broader cultural diet than in the past.

这种拓展和外延计划正真切地影响着对全世界对中国的认知。比如说,皮尤研究中心已经发现:年龄在18到29岁之间的尼日利亚人和加纳人中,有超过50%的人喜欢中国音乐、中国电视节目和中国电影。美国和欧洲在文化上的统治地位也许正在给一个更多元化的世界让路,在这样一个世界中,全世界人民享受的文化食粮比过去更为广泛。

International students have long been encouraged to study in China, with an increasing focus in recent years on Western students. The country is now a leading destination for overseas study, close on the heels of the UK. Just one example shows the scale of China’s investment: launched in 2012, the African Talents Program5 trained an estimated 30,000 African professionals in China between 2013 and 2015, with a further 18,000 African trainees benefiting from full scholarships to study at Chinese universities under the arrangement. China has studied what has worked for the US, UK and Germany and is not only targeting the leaders and opinion formers of tomorrow to build its global influence in the years ahead, but now also lixing its scholarships to mass education, e.g. for ASEAN nations, or more widely from the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) nations. The ambition is clear, the BRI covers some 65 countries along the Silk Road Economic Belt that crosses the Eurasian continent from Luoyang to Hamburg and the Maritime Silk Road that stretches from Quanzhou to Rotterdam via the South Asia and MENA regions. The scale of China’s offer outrivals that of other schemes. The growing importance of China to other states can be seen in UK and US efforts to encourage more of their own citizens to study in the country through support for programmes like Generation UK and the US’s 100,000 Strong campaign (now 1 Million Strong). Xinhua, the government’s main news agency, opened nearly 40 new foreign bureaus between 2009 and 2011, bringing its total to 162. The number of Xinhua correspondents based overseas doubled during that time. In December 2016 the state broadcaster rebranded its international media service, calling it China Global Television Network. The investment in CGTN is specifically aimed to compete with global services such as the BBC, CNN and Al Jazeera. CGTN can be received by more than 85 million viewers in over 100 countries and regions. It includes six channels in five languages, including a 24-hour English language news service and a documentary channel. CGTN makes a distinctive offer in its global news coverage, notably a much greater and more nuanced focus on Africa than that offered by the BBC, CNN and other Asian satellite television news channels. Earlier this year China’s foreign language radio services were folded into the mix to create Voice of China. The new combined group will have close to 14,000 staff. Its potential is reflected in the reach of just one of its channels – Radio China International broadcasts in 65 languages, more than any other broadcaster. The emphasis on soft power projection was made explicitly in the announcement of the new arrangements: The main duties [of Voice of China] are to publicise the party’s theory, line, principles and policies… organise major propaganda reports, organise radio and television creation and production, produce and broadcast radio and television products, guide social hotspots, strengthen and improve public opinion supervision, promote multimedia integration development… and tell the story of China.

长久以来,国际学生来中国求学是一直受到鼓励的,而近些年来越发专注于吸引西方学生。如今,该国紧随英国之后,成为了海外留学的一个主要目的地。在此举一例来说明中国的投资规模:2012年发起的“非洲人才计划”,据估计于2013至2015年间在中国培养出了3万名非洲专业人士,更有1万8千名非洲实习生受益于该套安排下的全额奖学金,能在中国的大学中学习。中国研究过美国、英国、德国的那些行之有效的做法,而且不仅瞄准了明天的领导人和舆论影响者,以便在未来的时代中构建其全球影响力,而且,现在还将其奖学金与大众教育挂钩,比如,面向东盟国家的奖学金,或是一带一路倡议中更为广阔的国家和地区。

这种雄心是昭然若揭的,一带一路倡议覆盖了丝绸之路经济带上的约65个国家,横跨了整个欧亚大陆,从洛阳一路到汉堡,外加海上丝绸之路,从泉州经由南亚和中东北非地区一路延伸到鹿特丹。中国开出的价码,其规模打败了其他的方案和计划。从英国和美国鼓励国民去该国求学的努力(通过一些诸如“英国未来计划” 和美国的“十万人强”运动(如今达到了百万人)的计划)中,可以发现中国之于其他国家不断增长的重要性。该国政府的主要新闻社新华社,在2009至2011年间新开设了将近40家海外分社,将其总数增加到了162家。驻海外的新华社记者人数在此期间翻了一倍。2016年12月,该国的国家广播电视台对其国际媒体服务作了更名,改为了中国环球电视网(即中国国际电视台CGTN)。对CGTN的投资,是专门为与诸如BBC、CNN和半岛电视台等全球服务展开竞争。



China’s investment and, in recent years, more differentiated approach to soft power, is changing opinions. According to Pew research data, the number of nations in which the US holds higher rates of favourability over China has halved from 2014–17, from 25 to 12. In the past the US had a 12 percentage point lead over China in terms of a global median, but in 2017 that lead has shrunk to just two points. In Africa for example, 72 per cent of Nigerians view China favourably and although in other countries across the continent views vary, China is generally perceived as a trusted partner and role model. 8 There is growing respect for the Chinese economic miracle and for Chinese advances in science and technology. In Latin America and much of the Middle East again China is viewed positively. China is now Brazil’s biggest trade partner and is by far the biggest trade partner for the whole African continent. Good will and trust is not only opening up opportunities for Chinese business, it is translating directly into influence. China is today making very effective use of soft power to build its international influence – especially in places that have recently been neglected by the West.

中国的投资,加上近些年来追求软实力的更为差异化的手法,正在改变舆论风向。根据皮尤研究中心的数据,相比于中国,对美国保有更高好感度的国家数量在2014至2017年间已经从25个被腰斩为12个。在全球平均好感度方面,过去,美国对中国保有着12个百分点的领先,但在2017年,这种领先幅度已经缩水至只有2个百分点。以非洲为例,有72%的尼日利亚人对中国持正面看法,虽然这个大洲上其他国家的看法各不相同,但中国还是普遍被视为值得信任的伙伴和榜样。对中国经济奇迹,以及中国先进的科学技术的尊敬不断增长。在拉丁美洲以及中东的很多地区,对中国的看法又一次呈现为正面。现在,中国是巴西最大的贸易伙伴,而且到目前为止,也是整个非洲最大的贸易伙伴。善意和信任不仅给中国企业提供了机遇,也正在直接转化为影响力。今天的中国正在有效地利用软实力构建其国际影响力,尤其是在最近一直被西方忽视的地区。

France
France’s networks and global presence are perhaps the closest to the UK’s in reach and depth.

【法国篇】
法国的网络和全球存在,在广度和深度方面可能是最接近英国的。

As new nations have arisen from former colonial holdings, cultural organisations and connections have replaced hard power institutions. There is a strong emphasis on the promotion of a shared francophone cultural identity. Through their global networks the French seek to promote the integrity of French culture and to take a position of leadership across the francophone world.

随着新国家从前殖民地中涌现,文化组织和文化联系已经取代了归属于硬实力的机构。高度重视增进法语国家同有的文化身份认同的情况是存在的。法国人寻求通过其全球网络促进法国文化的完整性,并在整个法语世界中占据领导地位。

The meteoric rise of Emmanuel Macron has further enhanced France’s influence. The tone of the rhetoric coming out of Paris and the President’s evident internationalism and commitment to the ‘European project’ has won him admirers around the world. The Macron Presidency is heavy in symbols and grand gestures but it is underpinned by a real shift in policy towards international engagement. The new President sees diplomacy and soft power as integral to realizing his ambitious agenda. There is renewed interest in the instruments of soft power too as can be seen in the President’s speech in Ambassador’s Week 2017 which set out the new orthodoxy of French soft power and influence with a particular emphasis on La Francophonie and the role of higher education in building relations with future world leaders.

埃曼纽尔·马克龙的迅速崛起已经进一步增强了法国的影响力。出自巴黎的豪言壮语以及这位总统身上清晰可见的国际主义,加上对“欧洲计划”的承诺,已经让他赢得了全世界的景仰。马克龙的这任总统任期象征意味浓厚,也作足了姿态,但却是由趋向于国际参与的真正政策转变所撑持的。这位新总统把外交和软实力看成实现其雄心勃勃的议程不可或缺的组成部分。通过该总统在2017年大使周的演说,也可以看出他重燃了对软实力手段的兴趣,该演说陈述了法国软实力和法国影响力的新正统,特别强调了法语国家,以及在和未来世界领导者建立关系中高等教育所发挥的作用。



France is the most popular country in the world for international tourists with 89 million arrivals in 2017. 12 Tourists flock to Paris for the culture, cuisine, shopping and the romance of the City of Light. The Louvre, the Eiffel Tower and Europe’s top tourist destination, Disneyland, are all part of the draw. Gastronomic diplomacy is also part of the mix with Michelin starred chefs in high demand. French culture is essential to France’s international attractiveness. The opening of the Louvre Abu Dhabi is the latest example of French cultural diplomacy and reflects a new trend in nation branding. The big French institutions are following the example of luxury brands LVMH and Kering in exporting themselves to the high growth regions of Asia and the Gulf. The Louvre Abu Dhabi will be followed by the Shanghai Pompidou Centre.

法国是全世界国际游客最为青睐的目的地国家,2017年有8900万人前往。游客大量涌入巴黎,为的是它的文化、美食、购物以及光之城的浪漫气息。卢浮宫,埃菲尔铁塔以及欧洲排名居首的游客目的地迪斯尼乐园,都构成了其吸引力的一部分。美食外交也是交往的一部分,其米其林星级大厨是颇为紧俏的。对于法国的国际吸引力来说,法国文化是居于枢要地位的。阿布扎比卢浮宫博物馆的开放是法国文化外交的最新范例,并且反映出了一种打造国家品牌的新趋势。这家大型法国文化机构在向亚洲高速增长的地区以及海湾地区输出时,遵循的是奢侈品品牌路易威登(LVMH)和开云集团(Kering)的范例。紧随阿布扎比卢浮宫的将会是上海蓬皮杜中心。

(译注:2007年,阿联酋与法国签约,决定合建阿布扎比卢浮宫。2017年11月11日,卢浮宫阿布扎比博物馆向公众开放)

Cultural diplomacy is formally the responsibility of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs which operates the Institut Français, the cultural equivalent of the Alliance Française. The Institut has an extensive global network of cultural centres around the world. The French government has entrusted the Institut with promoting French culture abroad through artistic exchanges in the performing arts, visual arts, architecture, French literature, film, technology and ideas. The Institut organises cultural seasons, festivals and cultural collaborations.

文化外交由法国外交部正式负责,后者运营着法国学院,相当于文化领域的法语联盟。该学院在全世界拥有一张文化中心组成的巨大网络。法国政府已经委托该学院通过艺术交流向海外推广法国文化,包括表演艺术、视觉艺术、建筑学、法国文学、电影、技术和创意。该学院组织了文化季、文化节和文化合作。

As with other European cultural institutions, the emphasis is very much on bilateral cultural exchange whether it is the France–Korea Year, the Paris–New York Tandem or 2018’s France–Israel Year. 2017’s France–Colombia Year typifies the bilateral approach – the first six months saw the French Season in Colombia, followed by the Colombian Season in France in the second half of the year. Much like the British Council, the Institut co-ordinates the French pavilions at major events such as the Venice Biennales for the visual arts and architecture and the São Paulo International Architecture Biennial. The Institut Français is also involved in identifying and promoting art scenes and offers opportunities for developing constructive relationships between professional communities in France and abroad.

与其他欧洲文化机构一样,把很大一部分重头放在了双边文化交流上,无论是法国-韩国年,巴黎-纽约串联,还是2018年的法国-以色列年,都是如此。2017年的法国-哥伦比亚年具有典型的双边手法特点,前六个月看到的是哥伦比亚的法国季,接着是下半年在法国的哥伦比亚季。很像英国文化委员会的是,该学院会在重大事件中负责协调法国馆,比如威尼斯视觉艺术和建筑学双年展,以及圣保罗国际建筑双年展。法国学院也参与鉴识和推广艺术现场,并为法国和海外的专业社群之间发展建设性关系提供机会。

Created in 2010, Campus France has some similarities to Germany’s DAAD and EducationUSA. It operates 255 offices and branches in 124 countries and promotes study in France to prospective students. 13 Unlike the DAAD it does not offer scholarships or grants to students, its role is focused on promotion and facilitation, for example through academic fairs and support for visa applications. The French MFA does offer international scholarships for students like the Eiffel Excellence Scholarships for master’s and PhD students and the Excellence-Major Scholarships. Much like similar British and American schemes the focus is on the policymakers and leaders of the future, ‘the brightest and best’.



France has long been a smart power, globally engaged, influential and known for a distinct approach to international relations. President Macron’s ambitions, if realised, could successfully position France as a key leader of global opinion.

法国长久以来一直是一个明智的大国,参与全球事务,富有影响力,并以处理国际关系的独特方式而闻名。马克龙的雄心如果能实现,将能成功地让法国取得全球关键性意见领袖的地位。